high stakes USA online casinos play online blackjack machine slot games for mac computers best rated online casino casino deposit options casino online with EcoCard complete information online casinos taking usa players rtg best casino for USA players

Jun 12

By Sheng Liu

Note: Most of the following materials are cited from the material distributed in the meeting

On June 2, 2014, Department of Defense (DoD) announced a Request for Information (RFI) Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation, RFI-RQKM-2014-0022.

The DoD wishes to consider input from Industry and Academia as part of an effort to select and scope the technology focus areas for future Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation (IMIs). These IMIs will be regionally centered Public Private Partnerships enabling the scale-up of advanced manufacturing technologies and processes with the goal of successful transition of existing science and technology into the marketplace for both Defense and commercial applications. Each Institute will be led by a not-for-profit organization and focus on one technology area. The Department is requesting responses which will assist in the selection of a technology focus area from those currently under consideration, based upon evidence of national security requirement, economic benefit, technical opportunity, relevance to industry, business case for sustainability, and workforce challenge.

The Technical Focus Areas currently under consideration are:

  • Flexible Hybrid Electronics
  • Photonics
  • Engineered Nanomaterials
  • Fiber and Textiles
  • Electronic Packaging and Reliability
  • Aerospace Composites

Therefore, optics and photonics will be competing directly with other technology areas for a possible DoD-sponsored IMI.

The opportunity to form a new IMI for photonics would benefit the entire industry by focusing federal and private sector investment and innovation through collaboration. The DoD is committing $70 million in federal funds with a minimum 1:1 non-federal cost share. Securing an IMI would confirm the importance of optics and photonics to the future of American manufacturing and the American work force, and it would continue to reinforce the foundational role of optics and photonics in virtually all sectors of the economy.

Therefore, active responses from optics and photonics communities to RFI is very important!!!

THz Science and Spectroscopy

While THz spectroscopy has served as an extremely useful tool for probing carrier dynamics for decades, it still surprises us today how far THz technology can extend to. There are two sections that researches presented their work on the generation of strong THz field (SW1F) and how THz are used for spectroscopy and sensing (SW3F).
Rupert Huber group from University of Regensburg continue surprises us how the strong THz pulses (multiple 10 MV/cm) can perturb electronic structure. After publishing the work of using 72 MV//cm THz pulse to drive coherent interband polarization combined with dynamical Bloch oscillations in semiconducting gallium selenide (generating phase-stable high-harmonic transients, covering the entire terahertz-to-visible spectral domain between 0.1 and 675 THz), today they present photoluminescence of GaAs driven by THz pulses which is only 1/400 photon energy of the bandgap of GaAs.

THz Science and Spectroscopy
(this figure comes from http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v8/n2/full/nphoton.2013.349.html)

Tobias Kampfrath from Fritz Haber Institute reviewed the progress of strong THz radiation resonantly and sensitively probing electron transport, spin precession and ion vibration in solids in the past few years. Strong THz radiation indeed serves as a powerful tool for us to explore the most fundamental physics.

Jun 12

Since it’s a topic that’s close to my heart, I enjoy the opportunity to see the latest work on semiconductor lasers whenever I come to CLEO. As always, I have been very impressed by all the work I’ve seen. And here I’d just like to highlight a couple of the many very impressive talks on this topic.

(a) Optical microscope image of the half-wave coupled rectangular ring-FP laser; (b) single mode emission with 44.5dB SMSR (Wu et al., CLEO 2014, STH1G.1).

(a) Optical microscope image of the half-wave coupled rectangular ring-FP laser; (b) single mode emission with 44.5dB SMSR (Wu et al., CLEO 2014, STH1G.1).

One that struck me is work out of Zhejiang University in China. The standard for tunable diode lasers is typically distributed Bragg reflector edge emitting lasers, and they’re remarkable devices. They’re capable of producing single-mode lasers with high side mode suppression, and, using some special tricks, can be tuned over a very wide bandwidth. The researchers at Zhejiang University, however, are taking a different approach. By coupling a ring resonator to a Fabry-Perot cavity, they get excellent wavelength selectivity (up to 41 dB of SMSR). In addition, they can selectively tune the device over a very wide bandwidth, achieving 50 channels on a 50 GHz spacing. It looks like a very interesting alternative to the conventional device.

Schematic of the device, (b) SEM picture of the first-order 50% duty cycle sidewall gratings with a 0.6 μm recess and λ/4 shift, (c) the MMI output side (Hou et al., CLEO 2014, STH1G.4).

Schematic of the device, (b) SEM picture of the first-order 50% duty cycle sidewall gratings with a 0.6 μm recess and λ/4 shift, (c) the MMI output side (Hou et al., CLEO 2014, STH1G.4).

Another interesting talk came out of University of Glasgow in the UK. These researchers have taking steps to monolithically scale up diode laser brightness. In order to do so, they have fabricated a DFB laser along with optical amplifiers. What’s special is that they’ve included intermediately a small tree of MMI splitters, so that an array of amplifiers exists at the device output. As a result, they get a coherently phased array with narrow divergence in the array direction and increased total power. The researchers demonstrated a four-element array, but they expressed hope for scaling up to even larger arrays in the near future. The nice thing is this sort of technology is scalable, and although there are some practical limits, there really aren’t any show-stopping fundamental limits to getting up to very high brightness sources.

These are just a couple of the remarkable talks on recent work in semiconductor lasers. Seeing as how fundamentally important diode lasers are to optical communications, sensing, research, and many other fields, it’s great to see the continued progress in this field.

Disclaimer: Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government and MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

Jun 12

By Shamsul Arafin

On the Wednesday morning, CLEO 2014 started with an excellent plenary talk on Fibers and the Future given by the inventor of erbium-doped fiber amplifier, David Payne (University of Southampton, UK), which featured the recent advancements and developments of optical fibers and its associated technologies such as fiber lasers, modulators, detectors or its relevant applications in telecoms and sensing. In his presentation, he showed different type of novel fiber design concepts including multielement fiber, multi-core fibers, anti-resonant hollow core fibers and the pros and cons of each design in terms of the transmission capacity, cross-talk noise reduction capability and suitability of interconnection technologies.

After the Plenary Session, CLEO: Market Focus program continued like yesterday which provided a platform to discuss about Operational Strategies for the Laser and Photonics Industry. The session, conducted by, Scott Dunbar, (Chief Operating Officer, AdValue Photonics, USA), started with a reasonable number of audiences and primarily addressed four successful companies’ operational strategies which are mainly based on in-house vs external manufacturing and on-shore vs. off-shore manufacturing. The first presentation was made by Mark Holman (A.T. Kearney, USA), covering the value-chain, levels and abilities in outsourcing/off-shore manufacturing for the photonic components, the unique challenges to realize such components due to the necessity of sophisticated cleanroom/fabrication facilities, high-skilled workers, qualities, etc. compared to standard electronics as well as the best practices to ensure corporate success. The next speaker, Nat Mani (CEO, Bestronics, USA) described the merits and demerits of contract manufacturer (CM) vs original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and explained how his company has become successful out of in-house/ on-shore manufacturing strategies. Then Kurt Weingarten (JDSU, Switzerland) introduced the strategies for his Time-Bandwidth products, a provider of high-powered and ultrafast lasers for the industrial and scientific markets. Finally, Andrew Willse (Director of Director of DPSS operations, Coherent, USA) described the effectiveness of outsourcing/off-shore manufacturing strategies by introducing several operational best practices for a successful Dual-Factory implementation.

Look for more  information on hot topic research tomorrow.

Jun 11

In a recent Physics Today article, Mohammad Hafezi and Jacob Taylor reviewed their recent work on creating topological insulators for light (Physics Today, May 2014, p. 68, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/PT.3.2394). One of the great things about CLEO is that this sort of cutting-edge research is commonly part of the program. And never failing to please, this year’s conference featured a couple of talks on this novel topic in photonic science.

First, let me review just a little bit about topological insulators as I understand them using (as Hafezi and Taylor did) the canonical example of the quantum Hall effect. The system under study is a two-dimensional material containing charged particles. If one applies a magnetic field perpendicular to the sheet, this will cause the particles to undergo circular orbits in the plane. In the center of the material, particles complete their orbits and globally remain stationary; the result is that there is no net transfer of charge and the material is insulating. However, something remarkable happens at the edges: the particles are unable to undergo a full rotation before ramming into a material wall. Then, instead of orbiting in place, the particle bounces off the wall and begins another partial rotation in the same direction. As a result, the particle hops along the edge of the material, and the effect is that there is charge transport and, therefore, a current. What you’re left with is a material that is insulating on the interior and conducting along the edges. The remarkable thing is that now researchers have observed this effect using photonics, and in more way that one!

In one realization presented at the conference, researchers from Technion Israel Institute of Technology and Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena created a periodic array of helically shaped waveguides. The analog of photons propagating down the array of helical waveguides is electrons evolving in time in a lattice of circulating atoms. In this rotating frame, the result is similar to that described above: propagation in the bulk of the material is prohibited, whereas there are propagating states allowed at the edges. The talk gave many examples of how this worked and what could be done with it. For example, in a honeycomb lattice, there are types of edges that allow edges states and some that don’t. However, when the helical waveguides are used, the usually “non-conducting” edges begin to allow the propagation of light. What’s even more remarkable is that light that transits from one edge type to another at a corner does so without scattering; instead it just makes the 90-degree turn an continues its propagation. This is just a taste of some of the remarkable results discussed in this talk, and more can be found in the CLEO abstract and their recent publication (Rechtsman et al., Nature, vol. 496, p. 196, 2013).

The other topological insulator talk I had the privilege of seeing was given by a member of the group that published the Physics Today article. In their work, they realize a topological insulator by utilizing a 2D array of coupled ring resonators. As they note in their article, the important property that they honed in on is that the path length of light traveling in a clockwise direction should be different from that traveling counterclockwise. To achieve this, they made oblong ring resonators, rotated neighboring rings 90 degrees with respect to one another, and offset them from center. The result is that light traveling in one direction take a long-arm path, whereas the short path is taken in the other direction. By using such an arrangement, they showed that edge states can be excited by operating at the correct frequency where bulk propagation is disallowed. In addition, due to the path length asymmetry, propagation in different directions is excited at different frequencies. A very exciting result to be sure. Again, I’m certain I can’t do justice to all the remarkable results, but one can see their CLEO abstract or their recent publication (Hafezi et al., Nature Photonics, vol. 7, p. 1001, 2013).

To my knowledge, these are the only two demonstrations of photonic topological insulators to date. However, this is a very new and exciting field; the theory for photonic topological insulators is less than a decade old. It’s remarkable how quickly these experimental results have been realized. I’m sure we can look forward to even more exciting results in the near future, and I look forward to it.

Disclaimer: Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government and MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

Jun 11

By Howard Lee

Today is a great day start with two plenary sessions from Gerhard Rempe and Larry Coldren, followed by whole afternoon of technical sessions, conference reception and poster sessions in the evening.

To conclude what I found exciting in the technology session and posters, I highlighted some of the works in the following.

Step forward to compact plasmonic nanocircuit

Prof. Min-Kyo Seo from KAIST talked about their work from Prof. Mark Brongersma at Stanford University on making an electrically driven plasmonic nanocirucit. They experimentally demonstrated an electrical pumped plasmonic light-emitting diode (LED)(emitting from a semiconductor quantum well) which is directly integrated to a plasmonic slot waveguide circuit with different functionalities such as splitting, freespace coupling and directional coupling. Although the efficiencies of the electrical driven LED and the coupling from the LED source to the plasmonic waveguide are not high (with coupling efficient of ~ 10 % to the waveguide) and the light source is not coherent, the work is an important step forward for future plasmonic circuit where the light source is electrically generated directly in the nanocircuit. Their result is published in March issue of Nature Photonics. (STu1M)[Nature Photonics 8, 244 (2014)].

Step forward to compact plasmonic nanocircuit
(Left) Schematic showing an integrated, electrically driven optical nanocircuit composed of three-dimensional slot-waveguide components, including two ultracompact splitters, a directional coupler and slot antennas. (Right) The nano-LED, with the quantum well located between the two red arrows. (STu1M)[Nature Photonics 8, 244 (2014)].

Poster Sessions: Broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with gain media

Dr. Sun from Missouri University of Science and Technology discussed their theoretical work to me on designing a broadband epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material (JTu4A.33). Their design of ENZ material based on a step-like metal-dielectric multilayer structures (see figure below) and he also discussed the use of gain material to obtain a broadband ENZ material with relative low loss. Although the structure is extremely difficult to fabricate (or even impossible), the work show an interesting approach to achieve a broadband ENZ material which would be useful for designing low loss metamaterial. Sun said that they are further working on the design of such ENZ metamaterial using step-like arrangement of nanoparticles, which would open up an easier and more realistic way for fabrication such material.

Broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with gain media
(Left) Schematics of the proposed broadband ENZ meta-atoms. (Right) The simulation retrieved effective permittivity of the single gain meta-atom (solid curves) and the single non-gain meta-atom (dashed curves).[JTu4A.33]

Check back tomorrow to hear about more exciting highlights at CLEO: 2014.


Jun 11

By Shamsul Arafin

The third day of CLEO: 2014 started with the Honorary Award Distribution Ceremony which was followed by Plenary Sessions, consisting of two talks. The first one was on Quantum Coherent Networks, presented by Gerhard Rempe from Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, Germany. Rempe’s talk initially covered the fundamentals of quantum-coherent networks, an exciting but challenging field of science and technology which allows a new approach to the processing of information for long-distance quantum communication and large-scale quantum simulation applications. He then described how Fabry-Perot cavity quantum electrodynamics with single-atoms trapped in high-finesse optical resonators could be employed for the realization of such quantum networks. The second talk, titled as Photonic Integrated Circuits as Key Enablers for Datacom, Telecom and Sensor Systems, given by Larry A. Coldren from UC-Santa Barbara, USA, addressed that why PICs are desirable for modest to high volume communication, sensing and instrumentation functions, where size, weight, power and cost are of major concerns.


Audience attending CLEO symposium


The special symposium on Laser Processing for Consumer Electronics included an invited talk from Keiji Nomaru, Disco Corporation, Japan that addressed the use of lasers in their semiconductor manufacturing process, such as grinding, cutting and polishing. In his presentation, he discussed the benefits of utilizing ultrafast lasers in the processing and microfabrication of the sapphire wafers with a precise process depth-control and a good cutting-surface quality. Also, Manjusha Mahendale from Rudolph Technologies, USA drew a crowd with her invited talk on Opaque Film Metrology using picosecond ultrasonic laser sonar (PULSE) Technology that is currently being used for the thickness and density evaluation of metal and opaque films as well as for the characterization of multi-layer bumps in advanced packaging applications.

On tap tomorrow, more symposiums and another great plenary.

CLEO: 2014 is being held 8-13 June 2014 in San Jose, CA.



Jun 10

By Howard Lee

The second half of my day was spent hearing more interesting talks and ended on a high note with the reminder that we are all “sitting on the shoulders of giants.” Here is a summary of this afternoon’s great experience:

Titanium Nitride (TiN), new material for thermophotovotaics

To enhance the efficiency of thermo-photovoltaics, the loss of the unusable photons (low energy photon which lower than the bandgap of the photovoltaics) need to be minimized and the operational temperatures need to keep high (~1500°C) for enhancing the power output, thus the emitter needed to convert the input thermal energy into the emission above the band-gap of photovoltaic cells. In the talks of Dr. Urcan Guler and Jingjing Liu (FM4C.5, FM4C.8)(both from the groups of Alexandra Boltasseva and Vladimir Shalaev at Purdue university), they presented the use of TiN material to make a ultra-thin plasmonic thermal emitter. The selective emitter they demonstrated shows high emittance around 2.5 μm and shorter wavelengths, and suppresses emittance at longer wavelengths (while working at high temperature of 830K)(figure below). As discussed by Guler, such high melting temperature TiN (melting temperature of 2950 degree celsius)(together with metallic properties and high absorption) would be potentially be used for the field of thermo-photonvotaics applications and heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) where high temperature environment are required.

Titanium Nitride (TiN), new material for thermophotovotaicsFig. 1. (a) Absorption of TiN metamaterial absorber and radiance of TiN selective emitter giv en along with solar irradiance and emission from a blackbody at 1500 oC. Dashed orange lines show the bandgap energies of several thermophotovoltaic semiconductors. (b) Metamaterial broadband absorber design (top) given with SEM images of TiN (left) and Au (right) samples after thermal testing at 800 oC for 1 hour. [FM4C.5, FM4C.8]

The last event I attended is the “Special Symposium in Memory of James P. Gordon”. It is a really amazing event with three Nobel Prize winners (Steven Chu, Arno Penzias and Charles ToChuwnes) and five invited speakers to speak about the personal life, scientific achievement and scientific attitude of James Gordon. The symposium started with the introductions of James Gordon by his wife (Susanna Gordon) and daughter, followed by his colleges and friends. As mention by the speakers, James Gordon was one of their smartest colleague/friends, but he is also one of the most humble person. The most amazing I found is that he did so many significant achievements in various fields of science, starting from the development of MASER (“Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”), followed by the investigation of optical trapping and optical fiber solitons.  I was grateful to able to attend this symposium hearing all of these talks about such an admired scientist.

Jun 10

The San Jose Convention CenterBy Howard Lee

I arrived to the nice city of San Jose to attend the CLEO 2014 conference for the first time. Upon entering the convention center, I found a sea of people at the front desk getting conference materials and registering. Despite the crowd, everyone looked excited about the program today! After making my way through all the people, I headed over to session SM2N “Modes in fibers”.

Studying Optical activity in photonic crystal fiber

One of the exciting talks of the session is presented by Dr. Gordon Wong from Philip Russell’s group in Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Germany (which is also the group I obtained my PhD from). Gordon presented their latest results on studying optical activity (namely circular birefringence and circular dichroism (CD)) in a special kind of fiber, which is helically twisted photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Different from other metallic spiral plasmonic structures, the twisted PCF provide a novel platform to study light properties in a twisted space with relatively long interaction length where metallic structure cannot be achieved. In such twisted fiber, additional phase matching is allowed to couple the core mode to the orbital angular momentum resonances, leading dips in transmission. At the resonance, they observed strongly enhanced circular dichroism. The important point here is that the CD could potentially be enhanced by varying the twisted rate and the fiber’s microsctructure, providing extra degree of freedom for altering the angular optical properties without any metal or nanofabrications required. (SM2N.1)[Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013), J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921–2927 (2013)].

Measured (colored dots) and calculated (solid curve) response in the vicinity of an OAM resonance

(Left) Measured (colored dots) and calculated (solid curve) response in the vicinity of an OAM resonance at 770 nm for linearly polarized input light and a sample length of 9 mm. (a) The polarization rotation angle ψ measured experimentally (green dots) and calculated numerically. The rotation angle of the core light, calculated analytically using symmetry properties and perturbation theory [1,2], but ignoring OAM resonances in the cladding, is shown as a dashed line. (Right) Schematic of the twisted photonic crystal fiber. [SM2N.1]

Sensing for chiral molecule using metasurfaceSensing for chiral molecule using metasurface

A really interesting talk I found in the afternoon was presented by Dr. Yang Zhao (FM3K.6). As there is serious demand to determine the chirality of molecules for achieving an enantiomer-pure chiral drug, many researches have been carried out to use chiral EM wave (optical chirality) for sensing such chiral molecules. However, when the amount of molecules is small, using optical chirality for sensing is normally not efficient. Zhao discussed in her talk how they use a near field chiral enhancement in a metallic metasurface to detect those molecules through circular dichroism (CD). The multilayer metasurface is made of gold by multiple Ebeam lithography steps. The second layer of pattern is twisted with certain angle with respect to the first layer (see figure on right), which leads to the origin of the CD. Using an analytical approach together with a careful design and fabrication of the metasturcture, they demonstrated a measurement of the CD signal for monolayer of protein and shows the metasurface providing an ultra-sensitive probe to enhance CD measurements, in which typical optical materails/structures cannot be achieved.

My day has not disappointed so far – I am looking forward to what the rest of the day has to offer.



Jun 10

One of the great things about CLEO is that not only is it a way to keep up with cutting edge research, but it also allows us to reflect on how we got to this point and who brought us here. The latter was the topic of two symposia held at the conference on Sunday and Monday evenings.

Dr. Howard Schlossberg

Dr. Howard Schlossberg

On Sunday evening, the first night of CLEO 2014, the conference held a special session, the “Howard Schlossberg Retirement Special Symposium.” Dr. Schlossberg has been the program officer for optical sciences at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for several decades. During his influential time in this position, he has fostered the development of X-ray generation, ultrafast optoelectronics, and optics in biomedicine. The symposium consisted of a number of insightful talks honoring Dr. Schlossberg and how his mentorship has led to many breakthroughs in light in medicine, ultrafast optics, and X-ray technology. It was a beautiful tribute to an insightful man with a very influential and impactful career.

Dr. James Gordon with the second maser.

Dr. James Gordon with the second maser.

Monday evening saw another special session, the “Special Symposium in Memory of James P. Gordon.” Dr. Gordon, as many probably already know, began his illustrious career working for Dr. Charles Townes and was a pioneer of the maser. The maser was instrumental in the discovery of cosmic background radiation, as was described by Arno Penzias. In addition, in collaboration with Fox, Li, and symposium speaker Gary Boyd, Dr. Gordon contributed to the development of confocal resonators, critical for low-loss laser cavities. However, his impact went far beyond the maser during an eminent career at Bell Laboratories, so much so that it would take very long to list all his achievements in this article. Highlighted during the symposium were his influence on quantum communications (presented by Mark Shtaif), laser trapping (Arthur Ashkin) and cooling (Steven Chu), and solitons (Linn Mollenauer). However, Dr. Gordon’s influence spanned more than just science, and this was highlighted wonderfully by all speakers, particularly by his wife and his daughter who gave beautiful tributes to his remarkable life as a platform tennis champion, mentor, husband, and father.

It was an excellent and inspiring start to CLEO 2014, and the messages in these symposia serve as great reminders of how we got to where we are now. It also was a great motivator for how far we can go from here. To paraphrase a quote Dr. James Gordon hung on his wall, “There is no limit to what can be accomplished if it doesn’t matter who gets the credit.” There’s so much left to be done and learned, and this is a great message for what CLEO and scientific research is all about.

Disclaimer: Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government and MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

Jun 10

By Sheng Liu

Today there were a couple of standouts that I’d like to highlight.

SM2J.5 Nanowire-based LEDs and Photovoltaics

Lars Samuelson reported the recent progress of LEDs and photovoltaics devices by his group and company (glō). Great advancements have been made in blue-green LEDs utilizing core-shell InGaN nanowires with external quantum efficiency of ~20%, similar as commercial products. Although more work is needed for these LEDs to achieve high power output, they are great for applications such as displaying. High performance photovoltaic devices are also demonstrated with axial GaN nanowires (InGaN quantum wells), while core-shell InGaN quantum well structures are under investigation with potentially better performances. Lars Samuelson also showed a novel fabrication process of GaAs nanowires using continuous gas-phase synthesis technique. This technique produces nanowires with tunable properties at phenomenal 1 μm/s growth rate.

SM2O Symposium on large-scale silicon photonic integration I&II

Very interesting symposium with all invited presentations. Presenters from universities and companies showed their most recent efforts in large scale silicon photonic integration which has extremely broad applications. According to Jifeng Liu from Dartmouth College (topic: Ge-on-Si integrated photonics): Integrated nanophotonics devices for high-bandwidth, ultra-low energy photonic data links offer solutions to the increase in energy consumption from computation and communication systems that has come with the rapid growth of information technology in the 21st century. Optical interconnection does not have bandwidth limit or resistive losses as its electrical counterpart, thereby providing an idea solution to high bandwidth, ultralow energy data links. Techniques are proposed to realize direct bandgap Ge so the large scale integration can be achieved with potentially <10 fJ/bit energy consumption.

I am looking forward to more exciting talks throughout the week.
CLEO: 2014 takes place 8-13 June 2014.


preload preload preload